The Biohub Cell Atlas Project

The Cell Atlas project is an international collaboration to map the cell types of the human body. This is one of the projects of Biohub research center. Biohub is one of the initiatives of Chan Zukerberg Initiatives.

The statement about Cell Atlas project in Biohub website:

"Mapping every type of cell in the human body is an ambitious goal, but we’re ready for the challenge. It requires biologists, engineers and technologists working as a team—which is why Biohub is the only place to launch this effort right now."

This is the project that talks about creating a map of all cells in a human body connecting to each other. This map will then eventually be available to researchers around the world who will identify how these cells are controlling every parts of our body.

This will reveal majority of mysteries inside the human body that would have not been possible earlier. This will help in understanding quickly the root cause of many diseases including the one's whose cure have not been found so far.

This project have 5 years of unrestricted funding from Chan Zukerberg Initiatives. It collaborates top scientists and engineers around the world and their full potential can be utilized. The whole team is pretty exciting about it and working hard to make it possible.

You can read more by visiting the following links:

1) Chan Zukerberg Initiative (

2) Biohub Cell Atlas (

3) Facebook (

Fill the details and create your story.

Fill-in each of the following empty fields using your own personal data and then click on "Write Story." You will surely get a blast of laugh while reading. So Enjoy..!!!

First Name: Something to Hide Behind:
Last Name: Friend's First Name:
Male or Female: A Piece of Furniture:
Age: A word expressing Anger:
Mother's First Name: Your Favorite Beverage:
Your Favorite Color: A Room in Your House:
Your City: Your Favorite Hobby:
Your State: Your Father's Name:
Type of animal: Your Favorite Store:
Favorite TV Show: Word to Describe Someone's Rear-End:

Mind guesser

Get ready to freak out!

* Please follow the instructions below carefully.

Go through each step first before pressing the below button, or you'll only ruin everything!

  1. Think of a number between 1 and 10.
  2. Multiply the number by 9.
  3. Add the digits of your result.
  4. Subtract 5 from your new number.
  5. Find the letter that corresponds to your number, if 1 = A, 2 = B, 3 = C, etc.
  6. Think of a country that begins with your letter.
  7. Write down the name of that country.
  8. Think of an animal beginning with the second letter of your country.
  9. Think of the color of that animal.
  10. Write down the animal and its color.
  11. Think of an animal that begins with the last letter of your country.
  12. Think of a fruit that begins with the last letter of this second animal.
  13. Write down the fruit and the animal.
  14. Now, if you are finished, click analyze.

The Breakout Game

Instruction to play

Click on the game. Move the arrow keys left and right to save the ball from dropping. The more bricks will break, the more point you will score. So, clear all bricks and win. Let's play.!

Super Mario Flash

Playing instructions (keyboard):

Select : Mouse Click | Move : Left/Right keys | Jump : Up key | Crouch : Down key | Fireballs: Space

Thanks to Nintendo. Get nostalgic and Enjoy! :)
Note : It may not run on Mobile browser due to plugin unavailability. Recommended to play in PC only.

* Please don't forget to share with your friends and family.! Thanks for playing.!

What are the functions of F1 to F12 keys?

Keys from F1 to F12 are commonly known as "function keys",  A function key is a key on a computer or terminal keyboard which can be programmed so as to cause an operating system command interpreter or application program to perform certain actions, a form of soft key.On some keyboards/computers, function keys may have default actions, accessible on power-on.


  • Almost always used as the help key, almost every program will open the help screen when this key is pressed.
  • Windows Key + F1 would open the Microsoft Windows help and support center.
  • Open the Task Pane.


  • In Windows commonly used to rename a highlighted icon or file.
  • Alt + Ctrl + F2 opens a new document in Microsoft Word.
  • Ctrl + F2 displays the print preview window in Microsoft Word.


  • Often opens a search feature for many programs including Microsoft Windows.
  • Shift + F3 will change the text in Microsoft Word from upper to lower case or a capital letter at the beginning of every word.


  • Open find window.
  • Repeat the last action performed (Word 2000+)
  • Alt + F4 will close the program currently active in Microsoft Windows.
  • Ctrl + F4 will close the open window within the current active window in Microsoft Windows.


  • In all modern Internet browsers pressing F5 will refresh or reload the page or document window.
  • Open the find, replace, and go to window in Microsoft Word.
  • Starts a slideshow in PowerPoint.


  • Move the cursor to the Address bar in Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox.
  • Ctrl + Shift + F6 opens to another open Microsoft Word document.


  • Commonly used to spell check and grammar check a document in Microsoft programs such as Microsoft Word, Outlook, etc.
  • Shift + F7 runs a Thesaurus check on the word highlighted.
  • Turns on Caret browsing in Mozilla Firefox.


  • Function key used to enter the Windows startup menu, commonly use to get into Windows safe mode.


  • Opens the Measurements toolbar in Quark 5.0.
  • Refresh document in Microsoft Word.
  • Send and receive e-mail in Microsoft Outlook.


  • In Microsoft Windows activates the menu bar of an open application.
  • Shift + F10 is the same as right-clicking on a highlighted icon, file, or Internet link.


  • Full-screen mode in all modern Internet browsers.


  • Open the Save as window in Microsoft Word.
  • Shift + F12 save the Microsoft Word document.
  • Ctrl + Shift + F12 prints a document in Microsoft Word.

Why and How of the earthquake - Indian fault line

"The reason is the regular movement of the fault line that runs along Nepal’s southern border, where the Indian subcontinent collided with the Eurasia plate 40 million to 50 million years ago."

But why? To know continue reading...

As the plates push against each other, friction generates stress and energy that builds until the crust ruptures. In the case of a quake, the plate jumped forward about 2 meters, or 6.5 feet. Such quakes tend to cause more damage and more aftershocks than those that occur deeper below the earth’s surface. After an earthquake, the plates resume moving and the clock resets. 

Earthquakes dissipate energy, like lifting the lid off a pot of boiling water, but it builds back up after you put the lid back on.

Nepal is prone to destructive earthquakes, not only because of the massive forces involved in the tectonic collision, but also because of the type of fault line the country sits on. Normal faults create space when the ground cracks and separates. Nepal lies on a so-called thrust fault, where one tectonic plate forces itself on top of another.

The most visible result of this is the Himalayan mountain range. The fault runs along the 1,400-mile range, and the constant collision of the India and Eurasia plates pushes up the height of the peaks by about a centimeter each year.

Despite the seeming regularity of severe earthquakes in Nepal, it isn’t possible to predict when one will happen. Historic records and modern measurements of tectonic plate movement show that if the pressure builds in the region in a way that is “generally consistent and homogeneous,” the region should expect a severe earthquake every four to five decades.

The earth’s tectonics plates are constantly in motion. Some faults release built-up stress in the form of earthquakes. Others release that energy quietly.

All we need to know:

What is an earthquake and what causes them to happen?

An earthquake is caused by a sudden slip on a fault. Stresses in the earth's outer layer push the sides of the fault together. Stress builds up and the rocks slips suddenly, releasing energy in waves that travel through the earth's crust and cause the shaking that we feel during an earthquake. An earthquake occurs when plates grind and scrape against each other.

What is a fault?

Faults are fractures in Earth's crust where rocks on either side of the crack have slid past each other. Sometimes the cracks are tiny, as thin as hair, with barely noticeable movement between the rock layers. But faults can also be hundreds of miles long.

At what depth do earthquakes occur?

Earthquakes occur in the crust or upper mantle, which ranges from the earth's surface to about 800 kilometers deep (about 500 miles).

What is "surface rupture" in an earthquake?

Surface rupture occurs when movement on a fault deep within the earth breaks through to the surface. Not all earthquakes result in surface rupture.

How are earthquakes measured?

The familiar Richter scale (which is not a physical device but rather a mathematical formula) is no longer widely used by scientists to report an earthquake's size. Today, an earthquake's size is typically reported simply by its magnitude, which is a measure of the size of the earthquake's source, where the ground began shaking. 

While there are many modern scales used to calculate the magnitude, the most common is the moment magnitude, which allows for more precise measurements of large earthquakes than the Richter scale. 

A network of geological monitoring stations, each with instruments that measure how much the ground shakes over time called seismographs allow scientists to calculate an earthquake's time, location and magnitude. 

Seismographs record a zigzag trace that shows how the ground shakes beneath the instrument. Sensitive seismographs, which greatly magnify these ground motions, can detect strong earthquakes from sources anywhere in the world.

How are quakes classified?

Based on their magnitude, quakes are assigned to a class. An increase in one number, say from 5.5 to 6.5, means that a quake's magnitude is 10 times as great. The classes are as follows:

Great: Magnitude is greater than or equal to 8.0. A magnitude-8.0 earthquake is capable of tremendous damage.
Major: Magnitude in the rage of 7.0 to 7.9. A magnitude-7.0 earthquake is a major earthquake that is capable of widespread, heavy damage.
Strong: Magnitude in the rage of 6.0 to 6.9. A magnitude-6.0 quake can cause severe damage.
Moderate: Magnitude in the rage of 5.0 to 5.9. A magnitude-5.0 quake can cause considerable damage.
Light: Magnitude in the rage of 4.0 to 4.9. A magnitude-4.0 quake is capable of moderate damage.
Minor: Magnitude in the rage of 3.0 to 3.9.
Micro: Magnitude less than-3.0. Quakes between 2.5 and 3.0 are the smallest generally felt by people.

What are the seismic zones of India?

The Geological Survey of India (GSI.) first published the seismic zoning map of the country in the year 1935. With numerous modifications made afterwards, this map was initially based on the amount of damage suffered by the different regions of India because of earthquakes. Color coded in different shades of the color red, this map shows the four distinct seismic zones of India. Following are the varied seismic zones of the nation, which are prominently shown in the map:
Zone - II: This is said to be the least active seismic zone
Zone - III: It is included in the moderate seismic zone
Zone - IV: This is considered to be the high seismic zone
Zone - V: It is the highest seismic zone

Designing a Safe house in an Earthquake prone area:

Government has already provided the guidelines to construct houses in accordance with the seismic zones of India. Please go through the below link:

How to cope with an Earthquake:

Stock Market - Bull Market v/s Bear Market

There are two classic market types used to characterize the general direction of the market. Bull markets are when the market is generally rising, typically the result of a strong economy. A bull market is typified by generally rising stock prices, high economic growth, and strong investor confidence in the economy. Bear markets are the opposite. A bear market is typified by falling stock prices, bad economic news, and low investor confidence in the economy.

Bull Market

A bull market is a financial market where prices of instruments (e.g., stocks) are, on average, trending higher. The bull market tends to be associated with rising investor confidence and expectations of further capital gains.

A market in which prices are rising. A market participant who believes prices will move higher is called a "bull". A news item is considered bullish if it is expected to result in higher prices.An advancing trend in stock prices that usually occurs for a time period of months or years. Bull markets are generally characterized by high trading volume.

Simply put, bull markets are movements in the stock market in which prices are rising and the consensus is that prices will continue moving upward. During this time, economic production is high, jobs are plentiful and inflation is low. Bear markets are the opposite--stock prices are falling, and the view is that they will continue falling. The economy will slow down, coupled with a rise in unemployment and inflation.

A key to successful investing during a bull market is to take advantage of the rising prices. For most, this means buying securities early, watching them rise in value and then selling them when they reach a high. However, as simple as it sounds, this practice involves timing the market. Since no one knows exactly when the market will begin its climb or reach its peak, virtually no one can time the market perfectly. Investors often attempt to buy securities as they demonstrate a strong and steady rise and sell them as the market begins a strong move downward.

Portfolios with larger percentages of stocks can work well when the market is moving upward. Investors who believe in watching the market will buy and sell accordingly to change their portfolios.Speculators and risk-takers can fare relatively well in bull markets. They believe they can make profits from rising prices, so they buy stocks, options, futures and currencies they believe will gain value. Growth is what most bull investors seek.

Bear Market

The opposite of a bull market is a bear market when prices are falling in a financial market for a prolonged period of time. A bear market tends to be accompanied by widespread pessimism. A bear market is slang for when stock prices have decreased for an extended period of time.  If an investor is "bearish" they are referred to as a bear because they believe a particular company, industry, sector, or market in general is going to go down.

A bear market is a condition in which securities prices fall and widespread pessimism causes the stock market's downward spiral to be self-sustaining. Investors anticipate losses as pessimism and selling increases.

A bear market occurs when the major indices continue to go lower over time. They will hit new lows. More important, their highs will be lower than before as well. The average length of a bear market is 367 days. The conventional wisdom says it usually lasts 18 months. Bear markets occurred 32 times between 1900 and 2008, with an average duration of 367 days. This is around once every three years.

If there are underlying reasons for prices to rise or fall, bull or bear markets are appropriate. If prices changes steadily enough that people can make a reasonable judgement that they have risen or fallen the appropriate amount, and change their expectations, all is well. But if they rise too fast, and people start buying just because prices are rising, not because they see any changes in fundamentals, you may get a bubble. And conversely, if the fall prompts people into panic selling, you may get a crash. Any you will get a crash when a bubble pops.

Stock Market Tutorial

As defined in Wikipedia, a stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.

Table of contents

*Click each topic to read more.

Stock Market - How it works?

In order to understand what stocks are and how stock markets work, we need to dive into history--specifically, the history of what has come to be known as the corporation, or sometimes the Limited Liability Company (LLC). Corporations in one form or another have been around ever since one guy convinced a few others to pool their resources for mutual benefit.

The first corporate charters were created in Britain as early as the sixteenth century, but these were generally what we might think of today as a public corporation owned by the government, like the postal service.

Privately owned corporations came into being gradually during the early 19th century in the United States , United Kingdom and western Europe as the governments of those countries started allowing anyone to create corporations.

In order for a corporation to do business, it needs to get money from somewhere. Typically, one or more people contribute an initial investment to get the company off the ground. These entrepreneurs may commit some of their own money, but if they don't have enough, they will need to persuade other people, such as venture capital investors or banks, to invest in their business.

They can do this in two ways: by issuing bonds, which are basically a way of selling debt (or taking out a loan, depending on your perspective), or by issuing stock, that is, shares in the ownership of the company.

Long ago stock owners realized that it would be convenient if there were a central place they could go to trade stock with one another, and the public stock exchange was born. Eventually, today's stock markets grew out of these public places.


A corporation is generally entitled to create as many shares as it pleases. Each share is a small piece of ownership. The more shares you own, the more of the company you own, and the more control you have over the company's operations. Companies sometimes issue different classes of shares, which have different privileges associated with them.

So a corporation creates some shares, and sells them to an investor for an agreed upon price, the corporation now has money. In return, the investor has a degree of ownership in the corporation, and can exercise some control over it. The corporation can continue to issue new shares, as long as it can persuade people to buy them. If the company makes a profit, it may decide to plow the money back into the business or use some of it to pay dividends on the shares.

Public Markets 

How each stock market works is dependent on its internal organization and government regulation. The NYSE (New York Stock Exchange) is a non-profit corporation, while the NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation) and the TSE (Toronto Stock Exchange) are for-profit businesses, earning money by providing trading services.

Most companies that go public have been around for at least a little while. Going public gives the company an opportunity for a potentially huge capital infusion, since millions of investors can now easily purchase shares. It also exposes the corporation to stricter regulatory control by government regulators.

When a corporation decides to go public, after filing the necessary paperwork with the government and with the exchange it has chosen, it makes an initial public offering (IPO). The company will decide how many shares to issue on the public market and the price it wants to sell them for. When all the shares in the IPO are sold, the company can use the proceeds to invest in the business.

Stock Market - Online Stock Trading

Online Stock Trading is a recent way of buying and selling stocks. Now you can buy and sell any stock over the Internet for a low price and you don’t need to call up a broker.

You can buy any stock and sell any stock and it doesn’t take much to get started.

All you need is a brokerage account. Once you have setup a brokerage account you then need to choose an investment method and then research different companies and then buy stock in the ones that you feel will go up because they are good sound companies.

So as you can see there are several benefits to online stock trading but let’s recap.

With online stock trading all you need is securities provider to open a brokerage account, the brokerage commissions are low and you can buy and sell your stocks from your home computer anytime that the stock market is open.

Well now that you know that you can do online stock trading with a minimal investment you should get started today and then start learning about the stock market and choose the stocks you want to invest in.

Brokers buy and sell stocks through an exchange, charging a commission to do so. A broker is simply a person who is licensed to trade stocks through the exchange. A broker can be on the trading floor or can make trades by phone or electronically.

An exchange is like a warehouse in which people buy and sell stocks. A person or computer must match each buy order to a sell order, and vice versa. Some exchanges work like auctions on an actual trading floor, and others match buyers to sellers electronically.

Stock Market - Broker

Are you wondering what a stock broker is and what they do? Here’s your answer.

A stock broker is a person or a firm that trades on its clients behalf, you tell them what you want to invest in and they will issue the buy or sell order. Some stock brokers also give out financial advice that you a charged for.

It wasn’t too long ago and investing was very expensive because you had to go through a full service broker which would give you advice on what to do and would charge you a hefty fee for it. Now there are a plethora of discount stock brokers such as Scottrade now you can trade stocks for a low fee such as $7 total.

We can think of three different types of stock brokers.

Full Service Broker

A full-service broker can provide a bunch of services such as investment research advice, tax planning and retirement planning.

Discount Broker

A discount broker let’s you buy and sell stocks at a low rate but doesn’t provide any investment advice.

Direct-Access Broker

A direct access broker lets you trade directly with the electronic communication networks (ECN’s) so you can trade faster. Active traders such as day traders tend to use Direct Access Brokers
So as you can tell there a few options for a stock broker and you really need to pick which one suits you needs.

Stock Market - Trading v/s Investing

Many people confuse trading with investing. They are not the same.

The biggest difference between them is the length of time you hold onto the assets. An investor is more interested in the long-term appreciation of his assets, counting on that historical rise in market equity.

He’s not generally concerned about short-term fluctuations in prices, because he’ll ride them out over the long haul.

An investor relies mostly on Fundamental Analysis, which is the analytical method of predicting long-term prospects of a particular asset. Most investors adopt a “buy and hold” approach to assets, which simply means they buy shares of some company and hold onto them for a long time. This approach can be dangerous, even devastating, in an extremely volatile market such as today’s BSE or NSE Indexes Show.

Let’s consider someone who bought shares of XYZ Company at their peak value of around Rs.650 per share at the beginning of the year 2000. Two years later, those shares are worth Rs.100 each. If that investor had spent Rs. 65,000/-, his net loss would be Rs.55000/- ! I don’t know about you, but losing Fifty Five Thousand Rupees would be a relatively big loss for me.

Many investors suffer such losses regularly, hoping that in five or ten or fifteen years the market will rebound, and they’ll recoup their losses and achieve an overall gain.

What most investors need to remember is this: investing is not about weathering storms with your “beloved” company – it’s about making money.

Traders, on the other hand, are attempting to profit on just those short-term price fluctuations. The amount of time an active trader holds onto an asset is very short: in many cases minutes, or sometimes seconds. If you can catch just two index points on an average day, you can make a comfortable living as an Trader.

To help make their decisions, Traders rely on Technical Analysis, a form of marketing analysis that attempts to predict short-term price fluctuations.

Stock Market - Stock Options

A stock option is a specific type of option with a stock as the underlying instrument (the security that the value of the option is based on). Thus it is a contract to buy (known as a "call" contract) or sell (known as a "put" contract) shares of stock, at a predetermined or calculable (from a formula in the contract) price.

It is having the rights to purchase a corporation's stock at a specified price.

In-fact, there are two definitions of stock options.

1. The right to purchase or sell a stock at a specified price within a stated period. Options are a popular investment medium, offering an opportunity to hedge positions in other securities, to speculate on stocks with relatively little investment, and to capitalize on changes in the market value of options contracts themselves through a variety of options strategies.

2. A widely used form of employee incentive and compensation.In some Companies, Stock options constitute part of remuneration.

Employee stock options are stock options for the company's own stock that are often offered to upper-level employees as part of the executive compensation package. An employee stock option is identical to a call option on the company's stock, with some extra restrictions.

Performance stock options are options that vest if predetermined performance measures are achieved. The performance goal (revenue growth, stock-price increases…) must be reached for the options to be exercise-able or for the vesting to be accelerated .

Stock Market - Primary & Secondary Market

There are two ways for investors to get shares from the primary and secondary markets. In primary markets, securities are bought by way of public issue directly from the company. In Secondary market share are traded between two investors.

Primary Market

Market for new issues of securities, as distinguished from the Secondary market, where previously issued securities are bought and sold.

A market is primary if the proceeds of sales go to the issuer of the securities sold.

This is part of the financial market where enterprises issue their new shares and bonds. It is characterised by being the only moment when the enterprise receives money in exchange for selling its financial assets.

Secondary Market

The market where securities are traded after they are initially offered in the primary market. Most trading is done in the secondary market.
To explain further, it is Trading in previously issued financial instruments. An organized market for used securities. Examples are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE),National Stock Exchange NSE, bond markets, over-the-counter markets, residential mortgage loans, governmental guaranteed loans etc.

Stock Market - Premium Issue

What Is a Premium Issue?

Generally, most shares have a face value (i.e. the value as in a balance sheet) of Rs.10 though not always offered to the public at this price. Companies can offer a share with a face value of Rs.10 to the public at a higher price.

The difference between the offer price and the face value is called the premium. As per the SEBI guidelines, new companies can offer shares to the public at a premium provided :
1.The promoter company has a 3 years consistent record of profitable working.
2.The promoter takes up at least 50 per cent of the shares in the issue.
3.All parties applying to the issue should be offered the same instrument at the same terms, especially regarding the premium.
4.The prospects should provide justification for the propose premium. On the other hand, existing companies can make a premium issue without the above restrictions.

A company’s aim is to raise money and simultaneously serve the equity capital. As far as accounting is concerned, premium is credited to reserves and surplus and it does not increase the equity. Therefore, a company which raises Rs.100 crores by way of shares at say Rs.90 premium per share increases its equity by only Rs.10 crores, which is easier to service with an investment of Rs.100 crores.

Thus the companies seek to make premium issues. As well shall see later, a premium issue can increase the book value without decreasing the EPS. In a buoyant stock market when good shares trade at very high prices, companies realize that it’s easy to command a high premium.

Stock Market - Demat Accounts

Demat refers to a dematerialized account. 

Though the company is under obligation to offer the securities in both physical and demat mode, you have the choice to receive the securities in either mode.

If you wish to have securities in demat mode, you need to indicate the name of the depository and also of the depository participant with whom you have depository account in your application.

It is, however desirable that you hold securities in demat form as physical securities carry the risk of being fake, forged or stolen.

Just as you have to open an account with a bank if you want to save your money, make cheque payments etc, Nowadays, you need to open a demat account if you want to buy or sell stocks.

So it is just like a bank account where actual money is replaced by shares. You have to approach the DPs (remember, they are like bank branches), to open your demat account. Let's say your portfolio of shares looks like this: 150 of Infosys, 50 of Wipro, 200 of HLL and 100 of ACC. All these will show in your demat account. So you don't have to possess any physical certificates showing that you own these shares. They are all held electronically in your account. As you buy and sell the shares, they are adjusted in your account. Just like a bank passbook or statement, the DP will provide you with periodic statements of holdings and transactions.

Is a demat account a must?

Nowadays, practically all trades have to be settled in dematerialised form. Although the market regulator, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), has allowed trades of upto 500 shares to be settled in physical form, nobody wants physical shares any more.

* So a demat account is a must for trading and investing.

Most banks are also DP participants, as are many brokers. You can choose your very own DP. To get a list, visit the NSDL and CDSL websites and see who the registered DPs are. A broker is separate from a DP. A broker is a member of the stock exchange, who buys and sells shares on his behalf and on behalf of his clients. A DP will just give you an account to hold those shares.  You do not have to take the same DP that your broker takes. You can choose your own.

Banks are also advantageous because of the number of branches they have. Some banks give the option of opening a Demat account in any branch, while others restrict themselves to a selected set of branches.

Some private banks also provide online access to the Demat account. So, you can check on your holdings, transactions and status of requests through the net banking facility. A broker who acts as a DP may not be able to provide these services.


The cost of opening and holding a Demat account. There are four major charges usually levied on a Demat account: Account opening fee, annual maintenance fee, custodian fee and transaction fee. All the charges vary from DP to DP.

Depending on the DP, there may or may not be an opening account fee. Most players levy this when you re-open a Demat account, though the Stock Holding Corporation offers a lifetime account opening fee, which allows you to hold on to your Demat account over a long period. This fee is refundable.

Annual maintenance fee: This is also known as folio maintenance charges, and is generally levied in advance.

Custodian fee: This fee is charged monthly and depends on the number of securities (international securities identification numbers – ISIN) held in the account. It generally ranges between Rs. 0.5 to Rs. 1 per ISIN per month. DPs will not charge custody fee for ISIN on which the companies have paid one-time custody charges to the depository.

Transaction fee: The transaction fee is charged for crediting/debiting securities to and from the account on a monthly basis. While some DPs, charge a flat fee per transaction.  The fee also differs based on the kind of transaction (buying or selling). Some DPs charge only for debiting the securities while others charge for both. The DPs also charge if your instruction to buy/sell fails or is rejected.

In addition, service tax is also charged by the DPs.

Stock Market - Investments

Judging by the fact that you've taken the trouble to navigate to this page my guess is that you don't need much convincing about the wisdom of investing. However, I hope that your quest for knowledge/information about the art/science of investing ends here. Read on. Knowledge is power. It is common knowledge that money has to be invested wisely. If you are a novice at investing, terms such as stocks, bonds, futures, options, Open interest, yield, P/E ratio may sound Greek and Latin. Relax. It takes years to understand the art of investing. You're not alone in the quest to crack the jargon. To start with, take your investment decisions with as many facts as you can assimilate. But, understand that you can never know everything. Learning to live with the anxiety of the unknown is part of investing. Being enthusiastic about getting started is the first step, though daunting at the first instance. That's why my investment course begins with a dose of encouragement: With enough time and a little discipline, you are all but guaranteed to make the right moves in the market. Patience and the willingness to invest your savings across a portfolio of securities tailored to suit your age and risk profile will propel your revenues and cushion you against any major losses. Investing is not about putting all your money into the "Next big thing," hoping to make a killing. Investing isn't gambling or speculation; it's about taking reasonable risks to reap steady rewards.

Investing is a method of purchasing assets in order to gain profit in the form of reasonably predictable income (dividends, interest, or rentals) and appreciation over the long term.

Why should you invest? 

Simply put, you should invest so that your money grows and shields you against rising inflation. The rate of return on investments should be greater than the rate of inflation, leaving you with a nice surplus over a period of time. Whether your money is invested in stocks, bonds, mutual funds or certificates of deposit (CD), the end result is to create wealth for retirement, marriage, college fees, vacations, better standard of living or to just pass on the money to the next generation or maybe have some fun in your life and do things you had always dreamed of doing with a little extra cash in your pocket. Also, it's exciting to review your investment returns and to see how they are accumulating at a faster rate than your salary.

When to Invest?

The sooner the better. By investing into the market right away you allow your investments more time to grow, whereby the concept of compounding interest swells your income by accumulating your earnings and dividends. Considering the unpredictability of the markets, research and history indicates these three golden rules for all investors
1. Invest early
2. Invest regularly
3. Invest for long term and not short term

While it’s tempting to wait for the “best time” to invest, especially in a rising market, remember that the risk of waiting may be much greater than the potential rewards of participating. Trust in the power of compounding. Compounding is growth via reinvestment of returns earned on your savings. Compounding has a snowballing effect because you earn income not only on the original investment but also on the reinvestment of dividend/interest accumulated over the years. The power of compounding is one of the most compelling reasons for investing as soon as possible. The earlier you start investing and continue to do so consistently the more money you will make. The longer you leave your money invested and the higher the interest rates, the faster your money will grow. That's why stocks are the best long-term investment tool. The general upward momentum of the economy mitigates the stock market volatility and the risk of losses. That’s the reasoning behind investing for long term rather than short term.

How much to invest?

There is no statutory amount that an investor needs to invest in order to generate adequate returns from his savings. The amount that you invest will eventually depend on factors such as:
           1 Your risk profile          2.  Your Time horizon           3.  Savings made
Remember that no amount is too small to make a beginning. Whatever amount of money you can spare to begin with is good enough. You can keep increasing the amount you invest over a period of time as you keep growing in confidence and understanding of the investment options available and So instead of just dreaming about those wads of money do something concrete about it and start investing soon as you can with whatever amount of money you can spare.

Investment is a term with several closely-related meanings in finance and economics.It refers to the accumulation of some kind of asset in hopes of getting a future return from it.Assets such as equity shares or bonds held for their financial return (interest, dividends or capital appreciation), rather than for their use in the organization’s operations.

Return on Investments 

The money you earn or lose on your investment, expressed as a percentage of your original investment. In Simple words, It is the amount received as a result of investing in particular ventures.

Collective Investments Schemes 

Funds which manage money for a number of investors and pool it together. This enables investors to benefit from a larger number of individual investments and cost efficiencies.

Short-Term Investments 

Short-Term Investments are generally investments with maturities of less than one year.

Capital Investments 

Investments into the fixed capital (capital assets), including costs for the new construction, expansion, reconstruction and technical reequipment of the operating enterprises, purchase of machinery, equipment, tools, accessories, project and investigation works and other costs and expenditures.

Stock Market - Different kind of Investments

These days, you can't retire without using the returns from investments. You can't count on your social security checks to cover your expenses when you retire. It's barely enough for people who are receiving it now to have food, shelter and utilities. That doesn't account for any care you may need or in the even that you need to take advantage of such funds much earlier in life. It is important to have your own financial plan. There are many kinds of investments you can make that will make your life much easier down the road.

The following are brief descriptions for beginning investors to familiarize themselves with different kinds of investment options:

401K Plans

The easiest and most popular kind of investment is a 401K plan. This is due to the fact that most jobs offer this savings program where the money can be automatically deducted from your payroll check and you never realize it is missing.

Life Insurance

Life Insurance policies are another kind of investment that is fairly popular. It is a way to ensure income for your family when you die. It allows you a sense of security and provides a valuable tax deduction.


Stocks are a unique kind of investment because they allow you to take partial ownership in a company. Because of this, the returns are potentially bigger and they have a history of being a wise way to invest your money.


A bond is basically a promise note from the government or a private company. You agree to give them a set amount of money as a loan and they keep it for a set number of years with a predetermined amount of interest. This is typically a safe bet and one that is a good investment for a first time investor because there is little risk of losing your money.

Mutual Funds

Mutual funds are a kind of investment that are based on the gains and losses of a shareholder. Basically one person manages the money of several or many investors and invests in a list of various stocks to lessen the effect of any losses that may occur.

Money Market Funds

A good short-term investment is a Money Market Fund. With this kind of investment you can earn interest as an independent shareholder.


If you are interested in tax-deferred income, then annuities may be the right kind of investment for you. This is an agreement between you and the insurer. It works to produce income for you and protect your earning potential.

Brokered Certificates of Deposit (CDs)

CDs are a kind of investment where you deposit money for a set amount of time. The good thing about CDs is that you can take the money out at any time without paying a penalty fee. We all know life isn't predictable, so this is a nice feature to have in your option.

Real Estate

Real Estate is a tangible kind of investment. It includes your land and anything permanently attached to your piece of property. This may include your home, rental properties, your company or empty pieces of land. Real estate is typically a smart and can make you a lot of money over time.

Stock Market - Introduction

In finance a share is a unit of account for various financial instruments including stocks, mutual funds, limited partnerships, and REIT's. In British English, the usage of the word share alone to refer solely to stocks is so common that it almost replaces the word stock itself.
In simple Words, a share or stock is a document issued by a company, which entitles its holder to be one of the owners of the company. A share is issued by a company or can be purchased from the stock market.

By owning a share you can earn a portion and selling shares you get capital gain. So, your return is the dividend plus the capital gain. However, you also run a risk of making a capital loss if you have sold the share at a price below your buying price.

A company's stock price reflects what investors think about the stock, not necessarily what the company is "worth." For example, companies that are growing quickly often trade at a higher price than the company might currently be "worth." Stock prices are also affected by all forms of company and market news. Publicly traded companies are required to report quarterly on their financial status and earnings. Market forces and general investor opinions can also affect share price.

Quick Facts on Stocks and Shares

Owning a stock or a share means you are a partial owner of the company, and you get voting rights in certain company issues
Over the long run, stocks have historically averaged about 10% annual returns However, stocks offer no
guarantee of any returns and can lose value, even in the long run
Investments in stocks can generate returns through dividends, even if the price
How does one trade in shares ?
Every transaction in the stock exchange is carried out through licensed members called brokers.
To trade in shares, you have to approach a broker However, since most stock exchange brokers deal in very high volumes, they generally do not entertain small investors. These brokers have a network of sub-brokers who provide them with orders.
The general investors should identify a sub-broker for regular trading in shares and palce his order for purchase and sale through the sub-broker. The sub/broker will transmit the order to his broker who will then execute it .

What are active Shares ?

Shares in which there are frequent and day-to-day dealings, as distinguished from partly active shares in which dealings are not so frequent. Most shares of leading companies would be active, particularly those which are sensitive to economic and political events and are, therefore, subject to sudden price movements. Some market analysts would define active shares as those which are bought and sold at least three times a week. Easy to buy or sell.

Next : Different Kind Of Investments

H1B under Trump's presidency

An H1B Reform Bill has been introduced today by California Congressman Zoe Lofgren raising the minimum salary for Level 1 Workers under H1B program to 130,000 USD (35% above state median wage for the profession) per annum with additional restrictions on the employer.

Congressman Zoe Lofgren said, "My legislation refocuses the H1B programme to its original intent – to seek out and find the best and brightest from around the world, and to supplement the US workforce with talented, highly-paid, and highly-skilled workers who help create jobs here in America, not replace them.".

Highlights of this bill :

Minimum Wage Level increased to 130,000 USD Per Annum or 35% above the median wage in the state (whichever is lower).

STEM Students allowed to declare Dual Intent to Study and Work in the United States. Allows for F1 to H1B bridge.

Sets Aside 20% of H1B Visas for Startups and Small Businesses.

Removes the Employment based per country cap on Skilled Workers that can be admitted into United States. Admission based on best fit, highest salary.

Prohibits onsite deployment at customer site for more than 30 days in a year.

Allows for easy switch of H1B from one Employer to Another without additional paperwork.

Improves Handshake between USCIS, Department of Labour, DHS and DOJ for increased fraud investigations.

The bottom-line is H1-B is going nowhere. It will be benefiting US only as the right talent will get the double wages which is sensible strategic approach. However, it can be seen as an high alert alarm to the other countries who are very much dependent on US especially on the software products. More people would end up working for US only, not as H1-B holders but as an outsourced elements with low wages.